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Methods of Teaching LECTURE CUM DEMONSTRATION METHOD Lecture Method It is oldest teaching method given by philosophy of idealism. As used in education, the lecture method refers to the teaching procedure involved in clarification or explanation of the students of some major idea. This method lays emphasis on the penetration of contents. Teacher is more active and students are passive but he also uses question answers to keep them attentive in the class. It is used to motivate, clarify, expand and review the information. By changing Ms Voice, by impersonating characters, by shifting his posing, byusing simple devices, a teacher can deliver lessons effectively, while delivering his lecture; a teacher can indicate by her facial expressions, gestures and tones the exact slode of meaning that he wishes to convey. Thus we can say that when teacher takes the help of a lengthy-short explanation in order to clarify his ideas or some fact that explanation is termed as lecture or lecture method and after briefing about lecture method. Let’s see what is a demonstration. Demonstration method: The dictionary meaning of the word “demonstration” is the outward showing of a feeling etc.; a description and explanation by experiment; so also logically to prove the truth; or a practical display of a piece of equipment to snow its display of a piece of equipment to show its capabilities . In short it is a proof provided by logic, argument etc. To define “it is a physical display of the form, outline or a substance of object or events for the purpose of increasing knowledge of such objects or events. Demonstration involves “showing what or showing how”. Demonstration is relatively uncomplicated process in that it does not require extensive verbal elaboration. Now it will be easy to define what is lecture cum demonstration method. To begin with, this method includes the merits of lecture method and demonstration method. The teacher performs the experiment in the class and goes on explaining what she does. It takes into account the active participation of the student and is thus not a lopsided process like the lecture method. The students see the actual apparatus and operations and help the teacher in demonstrating experiments and thereby they feel interested in learning. So also this mehod follows maxims from concrete to abstract Wherein the students observe the demonstration critically and try to draw inferences. Thus with help of lecture cum demonstration method their power of observation and reasoning are also exercised. So the important principle on which this method works is “Truth is that works.” Requirements of good Demonstration: The success of any demonstration following points should be kept in mind. 1. It should be planned and rehearsed by the teacher before hand. 2. The apparatus used for demonstration should be big enough to be seen by the whole class. If the class may be disciplined she may allow them to sit on the benches to enable them a better view. 3. Adequate lighting arrangements be made on demonstration table and a proper background table need to be provided. 4. All the pieces of apparatus be placed in order before starting the demonstration. The apparatus likely to be used should be placed in the left hand side of the table and it should be arranged in the same order in which it is likely to be used 5. Before actually starting the demonstration a clear statement about the purpose of demonstration be made to the students. 6. The teacher makes sure that the demonstration lecture method leads to active participation of the students in the process of teaching. 7. The demonstration should be quick and slick and should not appear to linger on unnecessarily. 8. The demonstration should be interesting so that it captures the attention of the students. 9. It would be better if the teacher demonstrates with materials or things the children handles in everyday life. 10. For active participation of students the teacher may call individual student in turn to help him in demonstration. 11. The teacher should write the summary of the principles arrived at because of demonstration on the blackboard. The black board can be also used for drawing the necessary diagrams. Steps needed to conduct a Lecture -cum demonstration lesson. 1. Planning and preparation: A great care be taken by the teacher while planning and preparing his demonstration. He should keep the following points I mind while preparing his lesson. a. Subject matter. b. Questions to be asked. c. Apparatus required for the experiment To achieve the above stated objective the teacher should thoroughly go through the pages of the text book, relevant to the lesson. After this he should prepare his lesson plan in which he should essentially include the principles to be explained, a lot of experiments to be demonstrated and type of questions to be asked form the students. These questions be arranged in a systematic order to be followed in the class. Before actually demonstrating the experiment to a class, the experiment be rehearsed under the condition prevailing in the classroom. Inspite of this, some thing may go wrong at the actual lesson, so reserve apparatus is often useful the apparatus has to be arranged in a systematic manner on the demonstration table. Thus for the success of demonstration method a teacher has to prepare himself as thoroughly as possible. 2. Introduction of the lesson: As in every subject so also in the case of science the lesson should stat with proper motivation of the students. It is always considered more useful to introduce the lesson in a problematic way which would make the student’s realise the importance of the topic. The usual way through which the teacher can introduce the lesson is by telling some personal experience or incident of a simple and interesting experiment. A good experiment carefully demonstrated is likely to leave an everlasting impression on the mind of the young pupils and would set the students talking about it in the school. 3. Presentation: The method presenting the subject matter is very important. A good teacher should present his lesson in an interesting manner and not in an boring manner. To make the lesson interesting the teacher may not be very rigid too remain within the prescribed course rather he or she should make the lesson as much as broad based as possible. For widening the lesson the teacher may think of various useful application taught by him. He is also at the liberty to take examples and illustrations for allied branches of science like history, geography etc. Constant questions and answer should form a part of every demonstration lesson. Questions and cross question are essential for properly illuminating the principles discussed. Question should be arranged in such a way that their answers may form a complete teaching unit 4. Performance of experiment: A good observer has been described as a person who has learnt the use the senses of touch, sight, smell in an intelligent way. Through this method we want children to observe what happens in a experiment and to state it carefully. We also want them to make generalization without violating scientific spirit i.e. we should allow children from one experiment or observation. The following steps are generally accepted as valuable in conducting science experiment generally. a. Write the problem to be solved in simple words. b. To make a list of activities that has to be used to solve the problem. c. Gather material for conducting the experiment d. Work out a format of steps in the order of preocedu8re so that everyone knows what is to be done. e. Teacher should try the experiment before conduction. f. Record the findings. g. Assist students to make generalisation. 5. Black Board Summary: A summary of important results and principles should be written in the Blackboard. Use of blackboard should be also frequently used to draw sketches and diagrams. The entire procedure should be displayed to the students after the demonstration. 6. Supervision: Students are asked to take the complete notes of the black board summary including the sketches and diagrams drawn. Such a record will be quite helpful to the student while learning his lessons .Such a summary will prove beneficial only if it has been copied correctly from the black boards and to make sure that it is done so the teacher must check it frequently during this stage. Common Errors In Demonstration Lesson A summary of the common errors committed while delivering a demonstration lesson is given below: a) Apparatus may not be ready for use b) There may not be an apparent relation between the demonstration experiment and the topic under discussion. c) Black board summary not up to the mark d) Teacher may be in a hurry to arrive at a generalisation without allowing students to arrive at a generalisation from facts. e) Teacher may take to talking too much which will mar the enthusiasm of the students. f) Teacher may not have allowed sufficient time for recording of data. g) Teacher may fail to ask the right type of questions Merits of Lecture cum Demonstration Method a) It is an economical method as compared to a purely student centered method b) It is a psychological method and students take active interest in the teaching learning process c) It leads the students from concrete to abstract situations d) It is suitable method if the apparatus to be handled is costly and sensitive. Such apparatus is likely to be handled and damaged by the students. e) This method is safe if the experiment is dangerous. f) In comparison to Heuristic, Project method it is time saving but purely Lecture method is too lengthy g) It can be successfully used for all types of students h) It improves the observational and reasoning sills of the students Limitations of Lecture cum Demonstration Method a) It provides no scope for “Learning by Doing” for the Students as students are only observing the Teacher performing. b) Since Teacher performs the experiment at his/ her own pace many students may not be able to comprehend the concept being clarified. c) Since this method is not child centred it makes no provision for individual differences, all types of students including slow learners and genius have to proceed with the same speed. d) It fails to develop laboratory skills in the students. e) It fails to impart training in scientific attitude. In this method students many a times fail to observe many finer details of the apparatus used because they observe it from a distance. PROJECT METHOD Project method is a natural hearted, problem solving and purposeful activity carried to completion in a social environment this is the most concrete of all types of activity methods. It is the revolt against the traditional, bookish and passive environment of school. The project method of teaching is the practical outcome of the John Dewey’s philosophy of pragmatism. Pragmatism has made a unique construction in the shape of project method enuciated by the Kilpatrick the follower of Dewey. In project method, study through workshop and source methods are also studied, concrete activity rather than academic work take the dominant place in the project method. The project method also transcends the subject barrier which is not done by other methods. In project method the teacher instead of following the lecture method substitutes “the subject” with few outstanding problems and proceeds to solve the same by experiment method with the active co-operation of the students. The purpose of this method is to learn pupils into the trained investigators and prepare them for learning by living. IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT METHOD 1) The principle of purpose: A purposeful activity will stimulate and provide to the child to achieve the goal and to kindle interest in the activity and consequently accelerated the learning process. 2) The Principle of Activity: It is an activity oriented method. It enabler the pupil to plan independently and to carry out the project in the co-operation of the others. 3) The principle of freedom: The method provider free atmosphere to do activity since a project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school and freedom to choose activity according to the interests, need and capacities of the children give them a freedom of the free atmosphere. 4) The principle of Reality: This method implies learning by doing. It meand the learning by doing is real. It introduces real life situation in the curriculum and the students. 5) The principle of utility: Knowledge for knowledge sake doesn’t appeal to a young child thus this method enable the pupil to learn skills which may help them in the later part of their life. 6) The principle of correlation: Knowledge is artificially fragmented otherwise it is holistic in nature correlation of subject is possible in project method. Definitions of project method -Ballard: “A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into the School”. – J. A. Stevenson: “A project is a problematic act carried to the completion in its Natural setting”. – Kilpatrick: “A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment”. – W.W. Charters: “In the topical organization principle are learned first while in the projects the problem are proposed which demands in the solution the development of principles by the learner as needed”. Different types of projects – The producer type: Here the emphasis is directed towards the actual construction of a material object or article. – The consumer type: Here the projective is to obtain either direct or vicarious experience such as reading and learning stories and also listening to a musical selection etc. – The problem type: Here the chief purpose is to solve a problem involving the intellectual process such as determining the density of a certain liquid etc. – The dill type: Where the objective is to attain a certain degree of skill in a reaction as learning a vocabulary. Various steps in conducting project Creating the situation: It is not right to force a project on the unwilling students. The students themselves should define state and choose their problems. Through mutual conversation the teacher helps in the making of a proposal by the students. The teacher would discover the taste, needs of the students and would provide situation wherein the students feel a spontaneous urge to carry out projects according to their felt needs. Selection of project: All the projects the children selects cannot be accepted and so only those projects which helps to meet the real needs of the students are selected. The teacher needs to participate and make the projects clearer to the students. For E.g. If teacher wants that there should be flower garden then he takes the student to a garden instead of ordering the students to plant a flower garden. The children thus are please to see the flowers and wonder why there are no flowers and the students select a project to have a flower garden. Thus in way teacher without ordering only by showing the situation can develop interest and select a project. Planning: After the project is decided and accepted the teacher may develop an outline and ask the pupils to study it deeply at home. A class period may be devoted for this work. The teacher should draw attention of the students to the need of planning before undertaking the activity. The task of planning is difficult. Good planning leads to better result reach child should be encouraged to give his suggestions. Different proposal should be discussed and alternative consider the proposal. The best plan is agreed upon after a good deal of discussion, suggestions counter suggestion and rejections. The teacher needs to divided the work among the students according to their interest and ability and see that they move towards accomplishing the task. Education of the plan: In this the students start collecting the facts according to their own efficiency and the teacher nearly supervisor the task done by them. This is the stage at which the student perform many activities and learn many various useful experience. The children’s are busy in collecting information, reading keeping accounts, calculating pries, visiting markets, museums etc For E.g.: Dramatizing the life of shivaji may be accepted as project in history. Where such a project is accepted the teacher may develop in broad outlines the life of shivaji and ask the pupils to study it thoroughly, children’s should also be engaged in making maps of India showing the Mughal Empire. These maps may be utilized in the drama at the appropriate places. Evaluating the project: The work is to be reviewed where it is completed. Here the pupil criticizer his own task and he decides are accomplished objectives that he sets out to achieve are occoueplished or not. They express their ideas before the teacher with freedom about their drawback. Recording: In this steps a complete record of all activities connected with the project must be maintained. In this all the pupils write in details about their all the five steps of the project with mention of consulted books aids, details of task etc. the project book should be well maintained. The project book should give the procedure of providing a situation and of choosing the project, duties assigned difficulties felt and experience gained etc. Merits of the project method 1. The project strategy is based upon the laws of learning: a. Law of readiness: According to this law we learn most when our minds are already to receive. The project method prepares the mind of the students by providing them with suitable situation. b. Law of exercise: Learning to be effective must be practised. The project method affords many opportunities to the students to learn by doing. c. Law of effect: This law states that if learning is to be effective and fruitful it must be accompanied by satisfaction pleasure when they manipulate their own activities. 2. This method makes education effective because it is purposeful, meaning arouses curiosity etc. Learning becomes practical and intimately related with life. When meaningful purposeful activities are provided to the students get opportunities to acquaint themselves with the real problems of life. The students learn practical usefulness of different subject of the curriculum. 3. The pupil involves in real life problem practically. They are trained to face life in future since they work in natural conditions. 4. The project method gives unity of the curriculum. The subject do not remain isolated in this method, but instead they are co-related and thus students learn different learn different subjects in this method. 5. The pupil acquires knowledge which is useful for the present and future life in short time. The method providing sufficient opportunities to the students to work co-operatively for common purpose decision are arrived at democratic way. 6. This method imports training to the student to inculcate in there primary virtues like tolerance independence, open mind ness, resourcefulness etc. 7. It cause an all round development of the pupils and attributes like self dependence and self confidence. 8. Dignity of labour is engendered through the project method. The students have to perform their activities on their own and thus they develop a taste for all kinds of work. They learn that there is nobleness working and doing things with their own. 9. The students work with great enthusiasm for the competition of their self chosen project. They do not feel tried as there is good deal of Varity in their work and the atmosphere is full of the freedom. As the children busy with their self chosen work they do not get opportunities to think of the anti social ways. Limitation of project method 1. A project with limited scope cannot develop on all around personality secondly no project can teach all the subject and so some times teaching becomes haphazard and discontinuous. 2. Neglecting intellectual work: There is a widespread misconception that the project method glorifies hard work at the cost of intellectual work. The critics argue is that the children are kept busy in model making only. 3. In this brilliant students lead other students who are passive and follow blindly. 4. This method practice and the development of skill in various subjects. The students do not get adequate drill in arithmetic, reading spelling drawing etc. 5. Preparation of books suitable for the project work is by no means an easy task. Moreover material required for the implementation of a project is very costly. The method is not suitable for the ordinary schools. 6. Some student who is not inclined to take responsibility may remain in the back ground and do very little work. 7. The school teaching can become disorganized and irregular because the method needs freedom and flexibility. 8. For the successful working of this method, very learned efficient teachers are needed. The method impose heavy burden and responsibility upon the teacher. Heuristic Method Heuristic – word meaning to discover. The word “heuristic” is derived from the Greek word heurisco” meaning “I find out” and the “Heuristic Method” is one in which the pupils are left to find out things for themselves. Children are placed, as far as possible, in the position of discoverers and instead of being told the facts; they are led to find out things for themselves. Through this method the pupils are made to learn. The Heuristic method was, for the first time, coined by Dr. H. E. Armstrong (1888-1928), Professor of Chemistry at City and Guild Institute Kensington. This method of teaching is of a very recent origin. First it was used in Science and its success led it to be adopted in the teaching of all subjects in the School Curriculum. The aim of this method is to develop the scientific attitude and spirit in pupils. The spirit of enquiry prompts the pupils to learn. This method insists on truth, whose foundation is based on reason and personal experiences. As a matter of fact there is no spoon-feeding or more acceptances of facts which are given by the teacher. An eminent educationist has pointed out that the object of the heuristic method is “to make pupils more exact, more truthful, observant and thoughtful to lay this solid foundation for future self-education and to encourage this growth of spirit of enquiry and research.” All the children in a class may be set to work simultaneously at this same problem in adopting the heuristic method. Each child with all attention strives to find out something for himself. Heuristic method aims at the pupils’ own observations to satisfy as many questions as possible to be raised in the teaching- learning situation. Much is demanded of the teacher in the heuristic method of teaching. He should be a great reader of books in order to obtain varied information. The teacher should posses much curiosity, observation, interest and spirit of scientific investigation, because these are the qualities he wishes to develop in pupils. The teacher should realize the responsibility of fostering in this pupils good habits of reading and collecting various information from books. In the heuristic method, the teacher is a guide and also a working partner. As a friend of pupils, this teacher should proceed on the way to discover facts. He is to see that this class room is pervaded by an atmosphere of freedom and that the work provided to the children encourages self-development, spontaneity and self-expression. This method is used not only in teaching scientific subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Nature Study, but in all subjects of the curriculum. A close study of this method reveals that it is in reality this heuristic attitude which should characterize teaching of all subjects. It is opposed to dogmatic techniques of teaching, where pupils are passive learners. This may be applied to inductive as well as deductive lessons and thus heuristic method is problem- solving. According to its author Prof. Armstrong, “Heuristic methods of teaching are methods which involve placing students as far as possible in the position of discoverers,—methods which involve their finding out instead of being merely told about things.” This statement speaks very Cleary that telling is in no teaching. The Heuristic method tends to set the learner himself on the track of invention and to direct him into the paths in which the author has made his own discoveries. Heuristic Method is learning by doing. In Heuristic method, the student is put in the place of an independent discoverer. Thus no help or guidance is provided by the teacher in this method. In this method the teacher sets a problem for the students and then stands aside while they discover the answer. In words of Professor Armstrong, “Heuristic methods of teaching are methods which involve our placing students as far as possible in the altitude of the discoverer – methods which involve their finding out instead of being merely told about things”. The method requires the student to solve a number of problems experimentally. To almost every one — especially children — experiments and science are synonymous. Once an idea occurs to a scientist he immediately thinks in terms of ways of trying out his ideas to see if he is correct. Trying to confirm or disprove some thing, or simply to test an idea, is the backbone of the experiment. Experiments start with questions in order to find answers, solve problems, clarify ideas or just to see what happens. Experimenting should be part of the elementary school science programme as an aid to helping children find solutions to science problems as well as for helping them to develop appreciation for one of the basic tools of science. Procedure of the Method The method requires the students to solve a number of problems experimentally. Each student is required to discover everything for himself and is to be told nothing. The students are led to discover facts with the help of experiments, apparatus and books. In this method the child behaves like a research scholar. In the stage managed heuristic method, a problem sheet with minimum instructions is given to the student and he is required to perform the experiments concerning the problem in hand. He must follow the instructions, and enter in his notebook an account of what he has done and results arrived at. He must also put down his conclusion as to the bearing which the result has on the problem in hand. In this way he is led to reason from observation. Essentially therefore, the heuristic method is intended to provide a training in method. Knowledge is a secondary consideration altogether. The method is formative rather than informational. The procedures and skills in science problem solving can only be developed in class rooms where searching is encouraged, creative thinking is respected, and where it is safe to investigate, try out ideas. Teachers Altitudes One of the most important aspects of the problem solving approach to children’s development in scientific thinking is the teacher’s attitude. H’s approach should be teaching science with a question mark instead of with an exclamation point. The acceptance of and the quest for unique solutions for the problem that the class is investigating should be a guiding principle in the teacher’s approach to his programme of science. Teachers must develop sensitiveness to children and to the meanings of their behaviour Teachers should be ready to accept any suggestion for the solution of problems regardless of how irrelevant it may seem to him, for this is really the true spirit of scientific problem solving. By testing various ideas it can be shown to the child that perhaps his suggestion was not in accord with the information available It can then be shown that this failure gets as much closer to the correct solution by eliminating one possibility from many offered by the problem. In this method teacher should avoid the tempetation to tell the right answer to save time. The teacher should be convinced that road to scientific thinking takes time. Children should never be exposed to ridicule for their suggestions of possible answers otherwise they will show a strong tendency to stop suggestions. For success of this method a teacher should act like a guide and should provide only that much guidance as is rightly needed by the student. He should be sympathetic and courteous and should be capable enough to plan and devise problems for investigation by pupils. He should be capable of good supervision and be able to train the pupils in a way that he himself becomes dispensable. Merits of Heuristic Method This method of teaching science has the following merits: It develops the habit of enquiry and investigation among students. (ii) It develops habit of self learning and self direction. (iii) It develops scientific attitudes among students by making them truthful and honest for they learn how to arrive at decisions by actual experimentations. (iv) It is psychologically sound system of learning as it is based on the maximum, “learning by doing” (v) It develops in the student a habit of diligency. (vi) In this method most of the work is done in school and so the teacher has no worry to assign on check home task. (vii) It provides scope for individual attention to be paid by the establishing cordial relations between the teacher and the taught. Limitations of Heuristic Method Main limitations of this method are as under: (i) It is a long and time consuming method and so it becomes difficult to cover the prescribed syllabus in time. (ii) It pre-supposes a very small class and a gifted teacher and the method is too technical and scientific to be handled by an average teacher. The method expects of the teacher a great efficiency and hard, experience and training. (iii) There is a tendency on the part of the teacher to emphasize those branches and parts of the subject which lend brandies of the subject which do not involve measurement and quantitative work and arc therefore not so suitable. (iv) It is not suitable for beginners. In the early stages, the students needs enough guidance which if not given, may greatly disappoint them and it is possible that the child may develop a distaste for studies. (v) In this method too much stress is placed on practical work which may lead a student to form a wrong idea of the nature of science as a whole. They grow up in the belief that science is some thing to be done in the laboratory, forgetting that laboratories were made for science and not science for laboratories. (vi) The gradation of problems is a difficult task which requires sufficient skill and training. The succession of exercises is rarely planned to fit into a general scheme for building up the subject completely. (vii) Some times experiments are performed merely for sake of doing them (viii) Learning by this method, pupils leave school with little or no scientific appreciation of their physical environment. The romance of modern scientific discovery and invention remains out of picture for them and the humanizing influence of the subject has been kept away from them. (ix) Evaluation of learning through heuristic method can be quite tedious. (x) Presently enough teachers are not available for implementing learning by heuristic method. Conclusion This method cannot be successfully applied in primary classes but this method can be given a trial in secondary classes particutarly in higher secondary classes. However, in the absence of gifted teachers, well equipped laboratories and libraries and other limitations this method has not been given a trial in our schools. Even if these limitations are removed this method may not prove much useful under the existing circumstances and prevailing rules and regulations Though not recommending the use of heuristic method for teaching of science it may be suggested that at least a heuristic approach prevails for teaching of science in our schools. By heuristic approach we mean that students be not spoon fed or be given a dictation rather they be given opportunities to investigate, to think and work independently alongwith traditional way of teaching. Analytic – Synthetic Method Analytical Method: The meaning of the word analysis is to “separate things that are together.” In this method we start from what is to be found or proved. Thorndike says that,” Analysis is the highest intellectual performance of the mind.” Analysis also means, “Breaking up of a given problem, so that it connects with what is already known.” In analysis we proceed from,” Unknown to Known.” Analysis is,” Unfolding of a problem to find its hidden aspect.” This method is used under the given conditions: When we have to prove any theorem. Can be used for construction problems. To find out solutions of new arithmetical problems. • Merits/Adv of this method are as follows: Logical, leaves no doubt. Facilitates understanding, as we discover facts. Each step has reason and justification. Student gains confidence and understanding. Method suits the learner and the subject. • Demerits of this method are: Lengthy method and also time consuming. Difficult to acquire efficiency and speed. Not applicable to all topics. Not suitable for students with weak conceptual knowledge. Synthetic Method: The word synthesis simply means,” To place things together or to join separate parts.” In this method we proceed from “known to unknown.” It is the process of relating known bits of data to a point where the unknown becomes true. It is the method of formulation, recording and presenting concisely the solution without any trial and errors. Merits/Adv of this method are as follows: Short and precise method. Saves time and labour. Suits the needs of majority of the students. Can be applied to a majority of topics in mathematics. Omits trial and error as in analysis method. Demerits of this method are: Teacher–centered method, students are passive listeners. Students rely on rote memory. No opportunity to develop the skills of thinking and reasoning, as understanding is hampered. Students lack confidence to do other type of sums. From the above discussion we can see that both the methods of analysis and synthesis by themselves have their advantages and disadvantages. In order to ensure the complete understanding of mathematics in the learners that both the methods be used together to teach mathematics. By using a combination of these two methods the teacher can ensure that effecting teaching learning takes place. Problem-Solving Method: Life is full of problems and we term one as successful, who is able to use the knowledge acquired and reasoning power to find solutions to these problems. Problem–solving may be a purely mental difficulty or it may be physical and involve manipulation of data. Problem-solving method aims at presenting the knowledge to be learnt in the form of a problem. It begins with a problematic situation and consists of continuous, meaningful, well-integrated activity. The problems are test to the students in a natural way and it is ensured that the students are genuinely interested to solve them. • Mathematical Problem Defined as, A problem is a task for which: The person confronting it wants or needs to find a solution. The person has no readily available procedure for finding the solution. The person must make an attempt to find a solution. • Goals Of Mathematical Problem-Solving: The specific goals of problem solving in Mathematics are to: Improve pupils’ willingness to try problems and improve their perseverance when solving problems. 2. Improve pupils’ self-concepts with respect to the abilities to solve problems. 3. Make pupils aware of the problem-solving strategies. 4. Make pupils aware of the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner. 5. Make pupils aware that many problems can be solved in more than one way. 6. Improve pupils’ abilities to select appropriate solution strategies. 7. Improve pupils’ abilities to implement solution strategies accurately. 8. Improve pupils’ abilities to get more correct answers to problems. • Steps of Problem solving method: Recognising the problem or sensing the problem. Interpreting, defining and delimiting the problem. Gathering data in a systematic manner. Organising and evaluating the data. Formulating tentative solutions. Arriving at the true or correct solution. Verifying the results. • Merits: The merits or advantages of problem solving method are as follows: Ø Method is scientific in nature. Ø Develops good study habits and reasoning power. Ø Helps to improve and apply knowledge and experiences. Ø Stimulates thinking of the child. Ø Students learn virtues such as patience, cooperation, and self-confidence. Ø Learning becomes more interesting and purposeful. Ø Develops qualities of initiative and self-dependence in the students, as they Ø have to face similar problematic situations in real life too. Ø Develops desirable study habits in the students. • Limitations: The limitations are mainly due to ineffective use of the problem solving method. When a classroom is completely teacher dominated then in such a classroom the problem solving method will fail. Difficult to organise e- contents of syllabus according to this method. Time consuming method. All topics and areas cannot be covered by this method. There is a lack of suitable books and references for the students. Method does not suit students of lower classes. Mental activity dominates this method. Hence there is neglect of physical and practical experiences. Scientific method The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments. The steps of the scientific method are to: Ask a Question Do Background Research Construct a Hypothesis Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion Communicate Your Results It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. A “fair test” occurs when you change only one factor (variable) and keep all other conditions the same. While scientists study how nature works, engineers create new things, such as products, websites, environments, and experiences. If your project involves creating or inventing something new, your project might better fit the steps of the Engineering Design Process. If you are not sure if your project is a scientific or engineering project, you should read Comparing the Engineering Design Process and the Scientific Method. Overview of the Scientific Method The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Scientists use the scientific method to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way. Just as it does for a professional scientist, the scientific method will help you to focus your science fair project question, construct a hypothesis, design, execute, and evaluate your experiment. Steps of the Scientific Method Detailed Help for Each Step Ask a Question: The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? And, in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number. Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question, you want to be a savvy scientist using library and Internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you don’t repeat mistakes from the past. Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work: “If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen.” You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment: Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren’t just an accident. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion: Once your experiment is complete, you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if your hypothesis is true or false. Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again. Even if they find that their hypothesis was true, they may want to test it again in a new way. Communicate Your Results: To complete your science fair project you will communicate your results to others in a final report and/or a display board. Professional scientists do almost exactly the same thing by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting. Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process. A process like the scientific method that involves such backing up and repeating is called an iterative process. Throughout the process of doing your science fair project, you should keep a journal containing all of your important ideas and information. This journal is called a laboratory notebook.

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun

The great thinker Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis, 1332 AD and died in Cairo, 1406 AD. His ideas have reflected their importance on the history of universal thought as much as within the Islamic realm. His thoughts are all self-created. He has been affected by savants before him but he is not a continuation of them. He created genuine and innovative ideas. It is due to this fact that although he lived during the 14th century his thoughts still manage to shed light among events of current times. His ideas have not lost their relevance as time has passed. Recognized as the founder of sociological sciences, Ibn Khaldun has been accepted and commented upon by historians, jurists, theologians, politicians, economists, teachers, educators and environmentalists alike. Ibn Khaldun’s great work of art, The Muqaddimah has been translated into the world’s most common languages.
Here, we shall try to enumerate his education-teaching views which shed light on current educational systems and consequently provide a text from which we may take benefit.

Imparting Information to Students at their Level of Comprehension
Information should be given to students gradually in stages, lower to higher, which they may understand. If teaching methods are gradually applied to students, the education will prove more effective for them. Initially, the main principles of information and sciences should be taught, and taking into consideration the learning capacity of the students these matters should be explained briefly. The subjects to be taught should be provided with this method until completion. Such a method will result in the students showing more aptitude to the given information. However, the students’ aptitude will remain weak and insufficient. The students during this period will have learnt to absorb the given information. Pursuant to this, the teacher should revise the subjects with a little more elaboration and continue to provide the information in a wider aspect until completion. Then the students’ knowledge and adjustments shall be enhanced accordingly. The teacher shall then revise the subject three times over from the beginning. During this period, the teacher shall be able to explain more difficult and deeper aspects of the subject. This will result in the students reaching their utmost aptitude. The subject needs revision three times over and then students become well familiar with the subject. This is the correct method of teaching according to Ibn Khaldun.1

Students should not be Forced to Memorize 
Teachers usually explain the difficult and deeper aspects of subjects which students are learning for the first time, therefore, forcing the students to memorize the subject. They accept this as the correct form of teaching. However, the students’ brains are not capable of understanding this. It’s difficult enough for them to learn a lesson. This results in the students becoming lazy, their mind rejects the information and the period of learning is prolonged. This is subsequently a result of poor teaching methods. The teacher should not impose upon the students whether they are new or accustomed to the subject. He should not overload the students with lessons beyond their capabilities and capacities, or should not intrude beyond the textbook under study or begin a new textbook before the current one is completed. Otherwise, the issues will be scrambled and subjects will become complex. When teaching, one must provide thought and revision. Memorization should be avoided.

Subjects should not be Taught in a Broken Sequence 
To teach subjects in a broken sequence is to prolong the term of study for knowledge or the sciences. For breaking up lessons or pausing results in a further period to learn that subject. The connection of issues within a subject will lose its significance. If issues within the subjects of information are applied in an organized manner until completion, these subjects will become more profound and their impression more permanent and students will therefore gain more. The information shall be connected with relative subjects and concretely formed within the brain and the mind.

Two Subjects should not be Taught Together
Two subjects should not be taught at one and the same time or be mixed with another subject. One should not pass on to another subject while the first remains incomplete. For this separates the heart from the mind. Concentration on learning both subjects at the same time unfortunately leads to an incomplete knowledge of both the subjects; the student absorbs neither information correctly.

Appropriate Length of Subjects Taught 
According to Ibn Khaldun, an over-summarized text on certain information as well as an over-extended text will create difficulty in learning the actual information. Furthermore, he separates the sciences into two categories of science-means and science-purposes. He explains the drawbacks of over-emphasizing on science-means. He believes that the wise men of recent times and their emphasis on science-means have led to negative results in the learning of these subjects.

It is Harmful to be very Strict on the Student
During education and teaching, it is harmful to be very strict on the student especially if the student is of young age. This sort of aggressiveness negatively influences the child. It may affect the psychology of the child and create unhappiness as well as corrupt his desire to work and study. This will drive the child to misbehaviour and to lie out of fear. He will learn to display actions contrary to those really within his heart. In time, this will become his nature and part of his character. It will corrupt the enhancements of social activities, modernization and the whole meaning of humanity consisting of self-esteem and family values.2 Therefore, teachers, mothers and fathers should not be aggressive towards children in order to teach them obedience and manners.3

Travelling and Conferencing with Scholars is Useful for Education
People sometimes learn knowledge, ethics, occupation, views and virtues from teachers and also from persons who are masters of their fields or simply others whom they accept as role models. Practical experience usually influences more concrete ideas on certain subjects. The more knowledgeable the teacher from whom information is gained, the more solid the knowledge is acquired by the student. Terminology of subjects usually complicates the learning process. Due to this, some assume that these terminologies are just part of the subject. This incorrect attitude may only be rectified by various means and teaching performed accordingly. Hearing the information from various masters shall strengthen his knowledge and assist him to differentiate between terminologies.4

Education should be Practical
Ibn Khaldun also emphasizes the teaching of arts and crafts. He states the importance of practical application such as to observe, to feel and to apply the knowledge gained as much as possible. He places emphasis on the fact that these sort of subjects cannot specially be taught only in theory.5 He states that theoretical study must be accompanied by practical study.

Learning Science requires Skill
Ibn Khaldun believes that learning science requires skill. Tradition is important in teaching. Tradition must be upheld for the progress of science. Otherwise, science and education will recede. Tradition of science and education only prevails in places which have progressed in prosperity.

Ibn Khaldun has emphasized the importance of science, education and teaching. He foresees science and education as an inseparable part of prosperity. According to him, the real difference between mankind and other beings is the power of thought. Science and art are born from open-minded thought and the intricate learning of the principles of all issues. Ideas emerge from those who have the curiosity and desire to investigate what is unknown. From this situation, the issues of education and teaching arise.6
He advises teachers to teach in a comprehensive manner and to gradually teach subjects in stages, moving from easier to the more difficult. Memorization should be avoided. He emphasizes that teaching methods should be simple and not complicated. He states that the teaching of subjects should not be in broken sequences or else the subject will become scattered and forgotten. Also, aggressive behaviour towards children will turn them off from lessons, create laziness, making them unwilling learners as well as negatively affecting their behaviour.
Education should consist of theory and practice. Education should be revised and repeated until a good level is attained. He also declares that learning and teaching the sciences require skill and that the teachers of these sciences should be knowledgeable in their fields. These clearly defined issues of Ibn Khaldun are still relevant for educational issues of contemporary times.

Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal was one of the greatest Muslim philosophers, was born in Sialkot in 1873. Apart from being a great poet, he was a great educational philosopher, though he was not an educationist in the limited sense of the word. Education does not only comprise academic learning at a formal place but it also include those informal influences which shape and modify the behavior and conduct of an individual and ultimately that of a nation. Iqbal is the greatest educationist in this broad sense of education. The detail of educational philosophy of Iqbal is discussed below.

1. His Criticism Of The Existing Educational And Social Institution:

Iqbal was not satisfied with the existing social and educational institutions and their functions. He has bitterly criticized them in his poems and suggested the means for their development and progress.

2. Aim Of Education:

According to Allama Iqbal the aim of education is the development of the personality of individual. He insisted upon the re retention of one,s precious self. therefore the highest aim of education, according to Iqbal, should be to strengthen the individual qualities of the child by the cultivating his originality and uniqueness.

3. His Concept Of Individuality:

Iqbal strongly opposes and criticized the doctrine of “pantheism” which means that the highest objective and ideal of man is to loose his individual identity in the absolute. Iqbal discarded this thought of negation of self and insisted upon the retention of one’s precious self. Development of individuality requires that the individual should undergo challenging experiences of life. He therefore, laid stress on importance of self-respect.

4. Curriculum:

Iqbal suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum; philosophical subjects, art and literature, religious subjects, social subjects, history and science. He decries mere bookish and crammed knowledge,

The knowledge which is not related to real life situations and which is therefore meaningless. Mere academic knowledge can not prepare a man for a life full of activity and struggle. In real criterion of learning is not learning of the book only but the ability if the learner to implement and apply the knowledge thus acquired in different life situations.

5. Method Of Teaching:

Iqbal does not favor the conventional method of teaching in which student is a mere listener. He stress on “ Learning by doing“, students should not only be contended on lectures; they should learn things by doing them practically. This helps in building up of the confidence and self-reliance among the learners. The teacher should made the teaching lesson as interesting as possible.

6. Women Education:

Unlike Plato and like Rousseau, Iqbal differentiate between the role of the men and the women in the society. According to him, education is the preparation for life, hence the education of the women should prepare them for their assignment duties. At first, he was not in favor of modern education for women.

7. Conclusion:

In a nutshell Iqbal is a great Muslim educational philosopher in the broadest sense of education. He believes in the importance of individuality and the respect for self. He advocates learning by doing and active participation of the students in the development of lessons. His theories are identical with modern educational theories.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning).
The Three Types of Learning
The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning(Bloom, 1956):
o Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
o Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude or self)
o Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels
• Knowledge
• Comprehension
• Application
• Analysis
• Synthesis
• Evaluation
Recalling memorized information. May involve remembering a wide range of material from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.
Learning objectives at this level: know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know principles.
Question verbs: Define, list, state, identify, label, name, who? when? where? what?

The ability to grasp the meaning of material. Translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). Goes one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding.
Learning objectives at this level: understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material, interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulae, estimate the future consequences implied in data, justify methods and procedures.
Question verbs: Explain, predict, interpret, infer, summarize, convert, translate, give example, account for, paraphrase x?
The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. Applying rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.
Learning objectives at this level: apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems, construct graphs and charts, demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure.
Question verbs: How could x be used to y? How would you show, make use of, modify, demonstrate, solve, or apply x to conditions y?
The ability to break down material into its component parts. Identifying parts, analysis of relationships between parts, recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.
Learning objectives at this level: recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing).
Question verbs: Differentiate, compare / contrast, distinguish x from y, how does x affect or relate to y? why? how? What piece of x is missing / needed?
(By definition, synthesis cannot be assessed with multiple-choice questions. It appears here to complete Bloom’s taxonomy.)
The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structure.
Learning objectives at this level: write a well organized paper, give a well organized speech, write a creative short story (or poem or music), propose a plan for an experiment, integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem, formulate a new scheme for classifying objects (or events, or ideas).
Question verbs: Design, construct, develop, formulate, imagine, create, change, write a short story and label the following elements:
The ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria, which may be internal (organization) or external (relevance to the purpose). The student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria.
Learning objectives at this level: judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by the use of internal criteria, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by use of external standards of excellence.
Question verbs: Justify, appraise, evaluate, judge x according to given criteria. Which option would be better/preferable to party y?


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, was born in Delhi on October 17, 1817. His family is said to have migrated from Herat (Afghanistan) during the time of Emperor Akbar. Many generations of his family had since been closely connected with the Mughal administration. Sir Syed’s father Mir Muhammad Muttaqi served as personal adviser to Emperor Akbar Shah II.

Sir Syed was born at a time when rebellious governors, regional insurrections and the British colonialism had eroded the extent and power of the Mughal Empire. With his elder brother Syed Muhammad Khan, Sir Syed was raised in a large house in a wealthy area of the Delhi. They were raised in strict accordance with Mughal noble traditions and exposed to politics. Their mother Aziz-un-Nisa played a formative role in Sir Syed’s life, raising him with rigid discipline with a strong emphasis on education. Sir Syed was taught to read and understand the Qur’an by a female tutor, which was unusual at the time. He received an education traditional to Muslim nobility at that time in Delhi. Under the charge of Maulvi Hamiduddin, Sir Syed was trained in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and religious subjects. He read the works of Muslim scholars and writers. Other tutors instructed him in mathematics, astronomy and Islamic jurisprudence. Sir Syed also pursued the study of medicine for several years, but did not complete the prescribed course of study. Sir Syed was also adept at swimming, wrestling and other sports. He took an active part in the Mughal court’s cultural activities. After completion of education his elder brother Syed Muhammad Khan founded the city’s first printing press in Urdu language and started publishing a journal Sayyad-ul-Akbar.

Acquainted with high-ranking British officials, Sir Syed obtained close knowledge about British colonial politics. At the outbreak of the War of Independence on May 10, 1857, Sir Syed was serving as the chief assessment officer at the court in Bijnor. Northern India became the scene of the most intense fighting. The conflict had left large numbers of civilians dead. Erstwhile centres of Muslim power such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur were severely affected. Sir Syed was personally affected by the violence. He lost several close relatives who died in the violence. Although he succeeded in rescuing his mother from the turmoil but she soon died in Meerut due to the hardships she had experienced. Sir Syed and many other Muslims took this as a defeat of Muslim society.

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they subjected them to ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power but the War of independence 1857 intensified this feeling and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown. After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community.

At such a critical stage Sir Syed rose to the occasion. In 1858, he was appointed to a high-ranking post at the court in Muradabad, where he began working on his most famous literary work “Asbab-e-Bhaghawath-e-Hind (Causes of the Indian Revolt)” which was a daring critique of British policies that he blamed for causing the Revolt. In the booklet published in 1859, Sir Syed explained causes of the Revolt. He rejected the common notion that the conspiracy was planned by Muslims, who were feeling insecure at the diminishing influence of Muslim rulers. Sir Syed blamed the British East India Company for its aggressive expansion as well as the ignorance of British politicians regarding Indian culture. Seeking to rehabilitate Muslim political influence, Sir Syed advised the British to appoint Muslims to assist in administration. His other writings such as Loyal Muhammadans of India, Tabyin-ul-Kalam and a series of “Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Therein” helped to create cordial relations between the British authorities and the Muslim community.

Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western-style scientific education by founding modern schools and publishing journals and organising Muslim intellectuals.

Through the 1850s, Syed Ahmed Khan began developing a strong passion for education. While pursuing studies of different subjects including European jurisprudence, Sir Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly-established colleges across India. Despite being a devout Muslim, Sir Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences. Sir Syed began feeling increasingly concerned for the future of Muslim communities. Committed to working for the development of Muslims, Sir Syed founded a modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859 which was one of the first religious schools to impart scientific education. Sir Syed also worked on social causes, helping to organise relief for the famine-struck people of the Northwest Frontier Province in 1860. He established another modern school in Ghazipur in 1863.

Upon his transfer to Aligarh in 1864, Sir Syed began working wholeheartedly as an educator. He founded the Scientific Society of Aligarh, the first scientific association of its kind in India. Modeling it after the Royal Society and the Royal Asiatic Society, Sir Syed assembled Muslim scholars from different parts of the country. The Society held annual conferences, disbursed funds for educational causes and regularly published a journal on scientific subjects in English and Urdu. Sir Syed felt that the socio-economic future of Muslims was threatened by their orthodox aversions to modern science and technology. He published many writings promoting liberal, rational interpretations of Islam. In face of pressure from religious Muslims, Sir Syed avoided discussing controversial subjects in his writings and focusing mainly on promoting education.

The onset of the Hindi-Urdu controversy of 1867 saw the emergence of Sir Syed as a political leader of the Muslim community. He became a leading Muslim voice opposing the adoption of Hindi as a second official language of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Sir Syed perceived Urdu as the lingua franca of Muslims. Having been developed by Muslim rulers of India, Urdu was used as second language after Persian, official language of the Mughal court. Since the decline of the Mughal dynasty, Sir Syed promoted the use of Urdu through his own writings. Under Sir Syed, the Scientific Society translated Western works only into Urdu. The schools established by Sir Syed imparted education in the Urdu medium. The demand for Hindi, led largely by Hindus, was to Sir Syed an erosion of the centuries-old Muslim cultural domination of India. Testifying before the British-appointed education commission, Sir Syed controversially exclaimed that “Urdu was the language of gentry and Hindi that of the vulgar.” His remarks provoked a hostile response from Hindu leaders, who unified across the nation to demand the recognition of Hindi.

On April 1, 1869, Sir Syed travelled to England, where he was awarded the Order of the Star of India from the British government on August 6. Travelling across England, he visited its colleges and was inspired by the culture of learning established after the Renaissance. Sir Syed returned to India in 1870 determined to build a “Muslim Cambridge.” Upon his return, he organised the “Committee for the Better Diffusion and Advancement of Learning among Muhammadans” on December 26, 1870. Sir Syed described his vision of the institution he proposed to establish in an article written in 1872 and re-printed in the Aligarh Institute Gazette of April 5, 1911 quoted below:

“I may appear to be dreaming and talking like Shaikh Chilli, but we aim to turn this MAO College into a University similar to that of Oxford or Cambridge. Like the churches of Oxford and Cambridge, there will be mosques attached to each College… The College will have a dispensary with a Doctor and a compounder, besides a Unani Hakim. It will be mandatory on boys in residence to join the congregational prayers (namaz) at all the five times. Students of other religions will be exempted from this religious observance. Muslim students will have a uniform consisting of a black alpaca, half-sleeved chugha and a red Fez cap… Bad and abusive words which boys generally pick up and get used to, will be strictly prohibited. Even such a word as a “liar” will be treated as an abuse to be prohibited. They will have food either on tables of European style or on chaukis in the manner of the Arabs… Smoking of cigarette or huqqa and the chewing of betels shall be strictly prohibited. No corporal punishment or any such punishment as is likely to injure a student’s self-respect will be permissible… It will be strictly enforced that Shia and Sunni boys shall not discuss their religious differences in the College or in the boarding house. At present it is like a day dream. I pray to God that this dream may come true.”

By 1873, the committee under Sir Syed issued proposals for the construction of a college in Aligarh. He began publishing the journal Tahzib al-Akhlaq (Social Reformer) to spread awareness and knowledge on modern subjects and promote reforms in Muslim society. Sir Syed worked to promote reinterpretation of Muslim ideology in order to reconcile tradition with Western education. He argued in several books on Islam that the Qur’an rested on an appreciation of reason and natural law, making scientific inquiry important to being a good Muslim. Sir Syed established a modern school in Aligarh and, obtaining support from wealthy Muslims and the British, laid the foundation stone of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College on May 24, 1875 with the aim of promoting social and economic development of Indian Muslims.

Sir Syed retired from his career as a jurist in 1876, concentrating entirely on developing the college and on religious reform. His pioneering work received support from the British. Although intensely criticised by orthodox religious leaders hostile to modern influences, Sir Syed’s new institution attracted a large number of students, mainly drawn from the Muslim gentry and middle classes. The curriculum at the college involved scientific and Western subjects, as well as Oriental subjects and religious education. The first chancellor was Sultan Shah Jahan Begum, a prominent Muslim noblewoman, and Sir Syed invited an Englishman, Theodore Beck, to serve as the first college principal. The college was originally affiliated with Calcutta University but was transferred to the Allahabad University in 1885. Near the turn of the 20th century, it began publishing its own magazine and established a law school. In 1920, the college was transformed into a university.

In 1878, Sir Syed was nominated to the Viceroy’s Legislative Council. He testified before the education commission to promote the establishment of more colleges and schools across India. In the same year, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Association to promote political co-operation amongst Indian Muslims from different parts of the country. In 1886, he organised the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Aligarh, which promoted his vision of modern education and political unity for Muslims. His works made him the most prominent Muslim politician in 19th century India, often influencing the attitude of Muslims on various national issues. He supported the efforts of Indian political leaders Surendranath Banerjea and Dadabhai Naoroji to obtain representation for Indians in the government and civil services. In 1883, he founded the Muhammadan Civil Service Fund Association to encourage and support the entry of Muslim graduates into the Indian Civil Service (ICS).

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan lived the last two decades of his life in Aligarh, regarded widely as the mentor of Muslim intellectuals and politicians of the 19th and 20th centuries. He remained the most influential Muslim politician in India, with his opinions guiding the convictions of a large majority of Muslims. Battling illnesses and old age, Sir Syed died on March 27, 1898. He was buried besides Sir Syed Masjid inside the campus of the Aligarh university.

The university he founded remains one of India’s most prominent institutions.

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